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'Census of pre-sixteenth-century portolan charts'

Corrections and updates to the article in

Imago Mundi: the International Journal for the History of Cartography 38 (1986) pp. 67-94 - available online via JSTOR


See also the equivalent update page for the chapter in Volume 1 of The History of Cartography

For new entries see Extra entries additional to the 1986 Census   | Portolan Charts Main Menu

Mounted on the web 7 March 2011

For full details of all the references cited see
Bibliography comprising literature since 1986 (and missed earlier publications) as well as references for all the portolan chart webpages

If you know of any other relevant information, references or illustrations please notify

the editor of this page, Tony Campbell:  



Comments on the census entries

See recent Bibliography for lists of atlases and charts, e.g.:
Astengo (2007) - 'Charts of the Mediterranean in Public Collections, 1500-1700'
Köberer (1986) - a brief list
Pflederer (2009) - a master summary listing of all works, based on the publications of 16 previous researchers
Pujades (2007) - separate lists of pre-1470 charts and atlases, with the dating and attribution systematically reviewed

See also Recent literature focusing on the institution that holds charts and atlases

A note on illustrations
The DVD accompanying Pujades (2007) contains scans of almost every pre-1470 chart and atlas sheets. These can be enlarged to the point that the place-names can be read. However, note that some of the scans provided are not of sufficient quality for that purpose. Nor can they be downloaded or printed, and it is not possible to compare those images on-screen with others. For those reasons, the reproductions in the two large Pujades volumes (2007 & 2009) can be very useful when charts need to be compared. Neither volume has a list of plates but a combined listing and index of the 48 charts and atlases concerned has been created and can be seen here.


Institutions (1-160)

The census was arranged geographically, by country and then town. If you do not know the census number you can find it from the Microsoft Excel spreadsheet A complete chronological listing of works assigned to the period pre-1501 (select the 'Location' option at the bottom) and see also its Explanation.

1
Vienna, Öst-Natbib. Cod.410*. Pasqualini [Nicolai], 6-sheet atlas, 1408=1448. Pujades (2007) A 23
Falchetta (1995), pp.62-3, note 90 corrected the date of the atlas from 1408 to 1448. In a personal communication (December 2008), Ramon Pujades explained that the original statement was written in incorrect Latin: 'anno millessimo quadrigessimo octavo, indictione nona', a presumed mistake for 'anno millessimo quadringentesimo quadragesimo octavo'. The 1448 date that is provided by that re-reading fits better, in his opinion, with the atlas contents. For this work's apparent place in the toponymic development of the period see Pujades (2007) pp. 350-97. His p. 487, 'Cartographers and their ateliers', has the following entry: "Nicolň Nicolai, 1448-79, Venice, Pasqualino Nicolai's son, member of the patriciate and skipper of a ship and galley". See also Pujades p.504, note 131.

2
Vienna, Öst-Natbib. K.II.100.725. Florino [Fiorino], 1462 - 8 small charts arranged on two sheets. Pujades (2007) A 32.
See the note to the extra entry, E.19, which is directly comparable to this.

4
Vienna, Öst-Natbib. MS 594 (Cimel.20). Vesconte, 10-sheet atlas, 1318. . Pujades (2007) A 3
Pujades (2007) note 31, p. 518, explains that the 'inner line' is 'drawn not inland from but on top of the coastline, to highlight it in the exceptional context of a sea coloured ochre ... [and that] both the colouring of the sea and the line that runs along the coast were added during the humanistic period'.

5
Bordeaux, Arch. Gironde, 2Z 1582 bis. Reinel chart.
Cortesăo had suggested a date of c.1484-7 for this Reinel chart, on the grounds that it incorporated the discoveries of Diego Căo (1484) but was pre-1487 because the Muslim banner was flying over Malaga (which fell to Spain in that year). However, Alfredo Pinheiro Marques (1987a) thinks it more likely that the banner refers to Granada (i.e. pre-1492). He also suggests that here, and on the 1492 Aguiar chart, the placing of part of the African coast on an inset could indicate the use of older models.
      Amaral contested Cortesăo's dating, proposing instead that the chart was drawn in two stages, the first in the period 1492-7 and the rest in 1504 or even later. Part of his evidence is the fact that the banner over Naples shows the arms of the Catholic Monarchs who conquered the city in that year. [I owe this reference to Joaquim Alves Gaspar.]

Recent literature:
Amaral (1995), pp.175-6
Anon. Portugal Brazil: the Age of Atlantic Discoveries (1990)
Pinheiro Marques (1989b)
Pinheiro Marques (1987a), pp.66-70

7
Lyons, Bib. de la Ville, MS 175. Vesconte, 7-sheet atlas, c.1321. Pujades (2007) A 5

Online scan (follow this complicated route: 'ressources - collections numérisées'; 'enluminures'; 'recherche simple'; then type into the 'Tous champs' box: 'portulan' [note spelling]; finally click 'lancer la recherche tableau' - to arrive at 42 scans (whole charts in low resolution and details in medium resolution) of this and the 16th-century atlas (MS 176)).
      The covers are reproduced in Pujades (2007) pp.136-7. For comments on the rhumb line network on the first chart, see the update page to the Chapter in the History of Cartography, under 'Rhumb lines or outlines first?' (p.390b).

Recent literature:
Benedetti (1991)
Wigal (2000)

8
Lyons, Bib. de la Ville, MS 179. Anon 4-sheet atlas. Dated by Pujades (2007) A 28, c.1425-50

Online scan (from this 'Subject' list select 'CADA/CHAR', then 'carte', which brings up two portolan works [this work, and Dijon - BM - ms. 0550 (A3 - 16th century)]
      The covers are reproduced in Pujades (2007) pp.136-7, and see his p.496a. See also Anonymous works and the question of their attribution (No.42).

Top of page

For the full details of the works mentioned see the Bibliography

9
[Nogent-sur-Marne.] Benincasa, 5-sheet atlas, 1467. Now: Paris, BnF DD6269. Pujades (2007) A 37

Recent literature:
Vagnon (2005) - explaining (pp.13-14) that the atlas had left Nogent-sur-Marne for the rue Richelieu by at least 1957. Like others, I was unaware of that. Her figs 2 & 3 illustrate, respectively, the second chart (west Mediterranean) and the first (north-west Africa).

10
Paris, Bibliothčque nationale de France AA562 (the so-called 'Columbus Chart')

Online scan

Recent literature:
Astengo (2007) pp.175-7, 239 [FrP1bis - '15th/16th cent.']
Comellas García-Llera (1995)
Flint (1992)
Luzzana Caraci (1993)
Nebenzahl (1990)
Pelletier (1992)
Rohen (2002)
Szaniawska (2001)
Wallis (1992)

A facsimile was produced:
José Luis Comellas, La carta de Cristóbal Colón, mapamundi, circa 1492 (Barcelona: M. Moleiro Editor, 1995).

11
Paris, BnF AA 566. M. de Viladesters chart, 1413. Pujades (2007) C 30
Pujades (2007) p.501a, and notes 166-7 (p.505), transcribes the original Spanish description by the 19th-century commentator, Father Villanueva.

Online scan

Recent literature:
Bibliothčque nationale de France, 'Ciel et Terre. L'Atlas Catalan'

12
Paris, BnF AA 751. Catalan chart (Cresques atelier), late 14th. Pujades (2007) C 22

Online scan

13
Paris, BnF B 696. Dulceti [Dulcert] chart, 1339. Pujades (2007) C 8
Transferred to the BnF in 1937

Online scan

Recent literature:
Bibliothčque nationale de France, 'Ciel et Terre. L'Atlas Catalan'
Brunner (1994)
Falchetta (1994)
Irás (2007)
Pujades i Bataller (2005) - see under Llompart i Moragues
Pelletier (1994)
Vagnon (2006)

14
Paris, BnF B 1118. Carte Pisane. Pujades (2007) C 1

For further comments see also Anonymous works and the question of their attribution (No.1), and the section on the earliest Genoese work.

Online scan

Recent literature [includes]:
Bibliothčque nationale de France, 'Ciel et Terre. L'Atlas Catalan'
Bremner (1984)
Lexikon zur Geschichte der Kartographie (1986)
Romano (1983)

15
Paris, BnF B 1131. G. Soler chart. Dated by Pujades (2007) C 14, c.1368-85
Pujades (2007) p.259 includes comparative details of this and the following

Online scan

16
Paris, BnF 8268. Anon chart. Dated by Pujades (2007) C 51, c.1425-50
Attributed by Pujades (2007), p.492b to Rafel Soler [see under Census 34 below]. Pujades (2007) p.259 includes comparative details of this and the preceding.

See also Anonymous works and the question of their attribution (No.48).

Online scan

Recent literature:
Pujades (2009) (illus. p.83)
Pujades (2007) p.176 illustrates the trigonometrical diagram assumed to have been placed there by the chart's owner

17
Paris, BnF C 4607. Vallseca chart, 1447. Pujades (2007) C 42

On the complex provenance see Pujades (2009) p.331, n.161

Online scan

Recent literature:
Pujades (2009) (and illus. pp.110-11)
Pujades (2007) p. 261 shows comparative details of the signed charts of 1439 and 1447 (Census 128 & 17) and unsigned works attributed to him (Census 22 & 78).
Vagnon (2006)

18
Paris, BnF C 5088. Ziroldi chart, 1422. Pujades (2007) C 33

Online scan

19
Paris, BnF C 5090. Roselli chart, 1462. Pujades (2007) C 64

Online scan

20
Paris, BnF C 5096. Anon chart, second half of 15th century. Pujades (2007) C 70

For comments about the supposed attribution to a Roselli workshop see Anonymous works and the question of their attribution (No.49).

Online scan

21
Paris, BnF C 15118. Anon chart, second half of 15th century.

Online scan

Recent literature:
Vagnon (2006)

22
Paris, BnF D 3005. Anon. 15th century chart fragments.
Pujades (2007) p.64 (C 43) dates this c. 1447 and attributes it to the Vallseca atelier - see p.261 for comparative details supporting the attribution, and also p.493a. For further comments on this see Anonymous works and the question of their attribution (No.47).

In a personal communication (December 2008) Pujades confirms that the suggested dating follows on from the close similarities with the Paris chart of that date (Census 17). For this work's apparent place in the toponymic development of the period see Pujades (2007) pp. 350-97. See also illustration in Pujades (2009) p.115.

Online scan

23
Paris, BnF D 7900. Virga chart, 1409. Pujades (2007) C 27

Online scan

24
Paris, BnF D 21815. Anon. 15th century chart fragment. Dated by Pujades (2007) C 74, c.1450-75
Vagnon (2005, p.19 and note 26) considers this, on the grounds of style and handwriting, to be the work of Grazioso Benincasa, although she notes that the unusually small scale necessitates very small handwriting. Pujades (2007, C 74) assigns it to a Benincasa atelier. For my recent comments see the Benincasa page, especially under Works plausibly attributable to Benincasa.

Online scan

Top of page

For the full details of the works mentioned see the Bibliography

25
Paris, BnF DD 687. Vesconte, 6-sheet atlas, 1313. Pujades (2007) A 1

Online scan

Recent literature:
Bibliothčque nationale de France, 'Ciel et Terre. L'Atlas Catalan'

26
Paris, BnF DD 1988. Benincasa, 5-sheet atlas. Pujades (2007) A 36

Online scan

Recent literature:
Vagnon (2005), fig.1 (chart 4, central Mediterranean)

27
Paris, BnF Dd 2779. Benincasa atlas, 1466. Pujades (2007) A 35

Online scan

28
Paris, BnF, MS.Esp.30. 'Catalan Atlas', c.1375. Pujades (2007) C 16

Online scan

Recent literature [includes]:
Anon. Portugal Brazil: the Age of Atlantic Discoveries (1990)
Bibliothčque nationale de France, 'Ciel et Terre. L'Atlas Catalan'
Ceva (2014) Catalan Atlas legends
Falchetta (1994)
Fernández García, A. (2009) [discussing the significance of the Sultan of Babylon's parrot]
Llompart i Moragues, et al. (2005b) [collection of essays]
Meyer (2000)
Nebenzahl (1990)
Pelletier (1995, 1999)
Riera & Llompart i Moragues (1984)

29
Paris, BnF, MS. Ital.1698. Anon 8-sheet atlas, second half 15th century
Vagnon (2005, p.19) considers it to have strong similarities with Benincasa's work, including the Cape Verde Islands and the West African coast as far as rio de palmeri (shown by Benincasa after 1468). However, she points out that the scales are treated differently and it is not in his hand. Cortesăo (1969-71) 2:192, had assigned it the date of 1473 (by comparison with BnF Ital.1710 - Census 31). The commencement date of the calendar, 1470, may be significant. Vagnon also notes that the corner illumination is reminiscent of Venetian work, e.g. Ziroldi. For my recent comments see the Benincasa page, especially under Works by Benincasa's successors and imitators.

30
Paris, BnF, MS. Ital.1704. Anon chart.
Pujades (2007) p.63 (C 11) considers this to be 'second quarter 14th century, Genoese' and from the same atelier as his C 10 (Library of Congress, Census 152). See also his p.447, note 6, and p.490b. Placed in my Census as 'late 15th/early 16th century' (on the basis of the comments of others, since I had not seen a reproduction of it), Pujades considers it 'unlikely to be later than the 1350s.' As he explains: 'the kind of decoration of the scales and the toponymy, very similar to that of Dulceto's chart of 1330, the geographical design (with the British Isles closely resembling those of the anonymous [i.e. Vesconte] atlas preserved at the Biblioteca Vaticana, cod. Mediceo Palatino, 1362 [i.e. Pal.Lat. 1362A, '132[1]' - Census 155], the fact that all the continental shelves are coloured in ochre and chancelleresque style of its lettering, with particularly long uprights, make it clear the work cannot possibly be from the 15th century'. For this work's apparent place in the toponymic development of the period see Pujades (2007) pp. 350-97. See also Anonymous works and the question of their attribution (No.9).

31
Paris, BnF, MS. Ital.1710. Anon 6-sheet atlas, second half 15th century
Vagnon (2005, p.19), and fig.4 (west Africa and the Cape Verde Islands). She points out that (as with BnF Ital.1698 - Census 29) the content is similar to that on Benincasa's work from 1468 (with the Cape Verde Islands and the West African coast as far as rio de palmeri) but the handwriting and dialect forms are different. The commencement dates of the two calendars, 1459 [I had given 1454] and 1480, are ambiguous. For my recent comments see the Benincasa page, especially under Works by Benincasa's successors and imitators.

Recent literature:
See the online description by Emmanuelle Vagnon & Marie-Pierre Laffitte (August 2004), dating it to about 1480.

32
Paris, BnF, MS. Lat. 4801. Chart of the Atlantic coasts, bound into a 15th century Ptolemy MS made for Borso d'Este (d.1471). It shows the main islands of the Cape Verde group, first included by Benincasa in 1468.

Recent literature:
See the online description by Emmanuelle Vagnon & Marie-Pierre Laffitte (August 2004) - under ff.123-4 at the end.

33
Paris, BnF, MS. Lat. 4850. Anon 7-sheet atlas. Dated by Pujades (2007) A 9, c1325-50.
There continues to be uncertainty about the dating of this work. My census had followed earlier authorities in assigning it to the 15th century. Vagnon (2005, p.19), whose authority (U. Baurmeister & M.-P. Laffitte, Des Livres et des Rois. La Bibliothčque de Blois (1992), pp.218-19, fig.7) had placed it at the beginning of the 15th century, discussed this as a possible source for Benincasa. She noted an additional provenance detail, that it had been in the library of the dukes of Milan in Pavia before 1459, subsequently passing to the French king Louis XII (1499-1515).
      Pujades (personal communications, 31 July & 16 September 2009) explains the reasoning behind his suggested early date for this atlas. In the toponymy (see under his 'A9' in the comparative name charts in Pujades 2007, pp. 69, 350-97, 490b) he finds evidence both for a Genoese origin and for a date no later than the third quarter of the 14th century. He cites as examples of the Genoese dialect: jara not zara or çara; montani not mortar; and san grigori not san zorzo. He considers that the spelling cloya instead of clogia, cloça or cloza, which appears on this atlas and on the Beccari charts only, may indicate the Genoese tradition on which Francesco Beccari was to build. Since MS. Lat. 4850 has none of the toponymic innovations introduced by the Beccari family after 1403 and, on the other hand, includes archaic names, such as Couena/Coueta (next to Fiume/Rijeka) or lo XVIII (Gulf of Panzano), that, alone, points to an early date.
      In general, the name forms match, sometimes precisely, those found in Genoese work of the mid-14th century. Likewise the handwriting points to that same period.
      Among other features that Pujades identifies to corroborate the above is the double representation of Venice (reflected on the waters of the lagoon), commonly found in Genoese pre-Beccarian works [see illustrations on Pujades, 2007, p.257], but never present in later Genoese charts. On the other hand, the atlas does not include the standard representation of the chain of rectangular islands across the northern curve of the Adriatic, always found on Venetian post-Pizziganian charts and atlases. Finally, the coloured chevrons in the side margins are another common Ligurian feature and one not seen after about 1350.
      For my own comments, on the basis of the Colour & Shape Analysis, see also Anonymous works and the question of their attribution (No.7).

Recent literature:
See the online description by Emmanuelle Vagnon & Marie-Pierre Laffitte (August 2004).

Top of page

For the full details of the works mentioned see the Bibliography

34
Berlin, Humboldt Univ., H 14-12. [Anon] chart, now known to be signed by Rafael Soler. Dated by Pujades (2007) C 52, 1425-50.
Pujades (2007) p. 504, note 87 notes that this chart 'had incorrectly been described as anonymous. However, the authorship legend is on the vellum neck, although it is possible to read only the two initial words: 'Rafel Soler...', and (p. 492b), where he states that 'Rafel has left us one signed work [this] and another anonymous one [Paris, BnF B8268 - Census 16, see detailed illustrations on Pujades, 2007, p.259], both of which probably date from the second quarter of the 1400s'. See also my comment in Anonymous works and the question of their attribution, and a brief, unsigned, illustrated note on the university website. This chart was reproduced as a folding end-piece in Kretschmer (1909) at 3/4 size.

35
Weimar, Klassik Stiftung. Anon chart, (Freducci?).
Astengo (2007) pp.220-1 discusses earlier suggestions about the chart's dating and authorship, concluding that the attribution to Conte di Ottomanno Freducci (fl. 1497-1539) 'seems reasonable'. However, the date, now illegible, was plausibly read a century ago as beginning: MCCCCLX ... If true, this would, theoretically, allow any date between 1460 and 1499.

36
Karlsruhe, Badischen Landes-bib., S6. Roselli chart, 1449. Pujades (2007) C 48

Recent literature:
Kauffeisen (1987)
Mesenburg (1990a & b, 1989)

37
Munich, Bay. Staatsbib., Kartenabteilung, Mapp. XXV, 1y [Cod.icon.130]. Beccari chart, 1426. Pujades (2007) C 36
Pujades cites it as Cod.icon 30 - in both his list and the DVD; the Kartenabteilung number comes from Kupčík.

Online scan (medium resolution)

Recent literature:
Kupčík (2000), pp.95-101 (double-page illustration)
Pujades (2009), pp.76-7 (double-page illustration)

39
Wolfenbüttel, Herzog August Bib., Cod Guelf.99 Aug.20. Freducci chart, 1497.

Recent literature:
Bremner (1984)

41
Greenwich, National Mar. Mus., G230:1/7MS. Bertran & Ripoll chart, 1456. Pujades (2007) C 58

Online scan (search for Bertran; enlargeable only to medium resolution)

Recent literature:
Pflederer ('Catalogues' 2006)

42
Greenwich, National Mar. Mus., G230:1/9MS. Domenech chart, 148(?).

Online scan (search for 'domenech'; enlargeable only to medium resolution)

Recent literature:
Pflederer ('Catalogues' 2006)

Top of page

For the full details of the works mentioned see the Bibliography

43-54
British Library, Department of Manuscripts
see Pflederer ('Catalogues' 2001)

43
British Library, Add. MS 6390. Benincasa, 6-sheet atlas, 1468. Pujades (2007) A 39

A recent palaeographical examination by Kevin E. Sheehan - see 'Aesthetic cartography: the cultural function of portolan charts from 1300 to 1700', Imago Mudi 65:1 (forthcoming 2013): 151-2? - explains that the ownership inscription was not, as previously thought, for a Genoese doctor named Camogli, but rather for 'Prosper Camulio de Medici, papal nuncio of the British Isles and later bishiop (elect) of Caithness'.

Recent literature:
Anon. Portugal Brazil: the Age of Atlantic Discoveries (1990)
Pujades (2007) p.113 - for an enlarged detail of the partially erased authorship inscription

44
British Library, Add. MS 11547. Benincasa, 5-sheet atlas, 1467. Pujades (2007) A 38

Recent literature:
Herbert (2003)

45
British Library, Add. MS 18454. Benincasa, 5-sheet atlas, 1463. Pujades (2007) A 33

Recent literature:
Anon. Portugal Brazil: the Age of Atlantic Discoveries (1990)

46
British Library, Add. MS 18665. Anon., 5-sheet atlas attributed to Ziroldi. Pujades (2007) A 27.

See Anonymous works and the question of their attribution (No.36).

47
British Library, Add. MS 19510. 'Pinelli-Walckenaer atlas', 6 sheets. Pujades (2007) A 12

Recent literature:
Pujades (2007) p.494b confirming the common authorship of this and the Combitis/Corbitis atlas (Census 117). He considers (p.69) these two works to date from the end of the 14th or early 15th century (apart from the clearly later sheets of this atlas), whereas my own toponymic analysis had pointed to a 15th-century date for each of its sections (see pp.419-20, Nos 23 & 24). Because of an earlier estimation of date which followed the commencement date of the calendar in this atlas (1384), Pujades placed both the Pinelli-Walckenaer and Corbitis atlases as if they were earlier than 1385 in his toponymic analysis (pp.388-).
      Falchetta (Periplus Adriaticus = PIN1 & PIN2) assigns the whole work to c.1385, presumably on the basis of its calendar. See also the 'Chapter', Appendix 19.1 (p.446-8) where the unreliability of such information is demonstrated, and see also update notes on the 'Chapter' under Appendixes: Calendars).
      In a personal communication (9 January 2009) Pujades added further comments, confirming that the two sections of the atlas were drawn by different people at different times, and that it was the second section (the large-scale Adriatic and Aegean sheets) that was drawn by Cesanis about 1434 (the corrected date of the Calendar). See also Anonymous works and the question of their attribution (No.32).
      See also Innovative Names (Pinelli-Walckenaer)

48
British Library, Add. MS 25691. Anon chart, attributed by Pujades (2007) C 9 to a Dulceti atelier, and datable c. 1339-50, though in the loose folding table of 'legends' to his Vallseca book (2009) he suggested c.1340 instead.

See Anonymous works and the question of their attribution (No.10).

Recent literature:
Whitfield (1996), with a reproduction

49
British Library, Add. MS 27376*. Vesconte-Sanudo, 5-sheet atlas. Pujades (2007) A 8

See Anonymous works and the question of their attribution (No.4).

Recent literature:
Falchetta (Periplus Adriaticus = VESL) suggests c.1330.
Whitfield (1996) - reproducing the British Isles and S.W. Europe

50
British Library, Add. MS 31315. Benincasa, 6-sheet atlas, 1469. Pujades (2007) A 40

Recent literature:
Whitfield (1996) - reproducing the British Isles and S.W. Europe

51
British Library, Add. MS 31318A. Benincasa chart, 1470.

Recent literature:
Harvey (1991) - reproducing the Aegean detail (p.62)

52
British Library, Egerton MS 73. 'Cornaro Atlas' (1489), 34 charts. Pujades (2007), COR 1-10

For an extended analysis see Anonymous works and the question of their attribution.

Recent literature:
Anon. Portugal Brazil: the Age of Atlantic Discoveries (1990)
Harvey (1991) - reproducing (pp.66 & 67) the Aegean from Nicolo Pasqualini and Benedetto Pesina respectively (openings 23-24)

54
British Library, Egerton MS 2855. Benincasa, 6-sheet atlas, 1473.

Recent literature:
Harvey (1991) - reproducing the final west African sheet (pp.50 & 65 - different details)
Herbert (2003)

56
[London, Royal Army Medical Corps], Benincasa, 4-sheet atlas, 1463 - stolen in 1930 and thus omitted from the Pujades listing.

57
Oxford, Bodleian MS Douce 390. Anon 7-sheet atlas. Dated by Pujades (2007) A 13, to the beginning of the 15th century

See Anonymous works and the question of their attribution (No.24).

Recent literature:
Falchetta (Periplus Adriaticus = ANBod): 'first quarter 15th century'
Falchetta (1995) pp. 87-90
Pflederer ('Catalogues' 2008)

58
Budapest, National Széchényi Library / Országos Széchényi Könyvtár, Manuscripts Department, Fol. Ital.8 [formerly Magyar Nemzeti Muzeum, Cod. Lat. Medii Aevi 353]. 6-sheet Benincasa atlas, 1474

Literature:
Tivadar Ács, 'Egy elveszettnek vélt Corvina térképmellékletrol' Térképészeti Közlöny VII, No.3-4 (1950): 333-4.

Top of page

For the full details of the works mentioned see the Bibliography

59
Ancona, Soprintendenza per i Beni archeologici delle Marche, Cat I,inv. n. 15 Beni Mobili [formerly Ancona, Museo Nazionale delle Marche, MS 253], Andrea Benincasa, chart, 1490 - reduced, through war damage in 1944, to a fragment covering the Atlantic coasts with the British Isles and including the signature across the neck.

61
Bologna, Bib. Univ. MS 280. Benincasa chart, 1482.

Online scan (medium resolution)

62
Cortona, Bib. dell'Accad. Etrusca. Anon chart, early 14th century. Pujades (2007) C 2

For further comments see Anonymous works and the question of their attribution (No.2), and the section on the earliest Genoese work.

Recent literature:
Capacci (1996 - p.XIV, he explains that he used the 1957 Armignacco transcription, but verified those readings following a [then] recent restoration)
Ferro (1996), with reproduction

65
Florence, Arch. di Stato C.N.2 (destroyed), Carignano chart. Pujades (2007) C 6.

Recent literature:
Duken (1988 & 1984)
Pujades (2007) p.517 - for a discussion of the chart's significance, as reflecting a merging of the 'pragmatic and erudite' traditions.

66
Florence, Arch. di Stato C.N.3. Soler chart, 1385. Pujades (2007) C 17

Recent literature:
Pujades (2009), illustrated p.63

70
Florence, Arch. di Stato C.N. 8. Chart apparently signed from Majorca, although the date, read by Uzielli as 'M cccc lxxxvij' (1487), is now illegible, as is the authorship inscription, supposedly seen previously by some as starting 'March' or 'Mare', and by others as 'Me...', perhaps for Mestre (Master). Confirmation of the current illegibility from Ramon Pujades (personal communication, 29 June 2010).

71
Florence, Arch. di Stato C.N. 9. Anon chart, second half 15th century, attributed to Benincasa

Campbell, 'Works plausibly attributed to Benincasa', and the accompanying tables

72
Florence, Arch. di Stato C.N. 11. Anon chart. Dated by Pujades (2007) C 49, c.1425-50
Pujades (2007) p.496a-b considers this to be in the same hand as Venice, Bib.Naz. Marciana, It.IV, 493 (5077) - (Census 114).

See Anonymous works and the question of their attribution (No.39).

73
Florence, Arch. di Stato C.N. 22.Vallseca chart, 1449. Pujades (2007) C 47

Recent literature:
Pujades (2009), illustrated pp.112-13

75-77
Florence, Bib. Medicea-Laur.
Recent literature:
Bigliazzi & Giannozzi (1987)

76
Florence, Bib. Med.Laur, Gaddi. Rel.9. (Medici Atlas), 6 sheets.
Pujades (2007) p.447, note 9 [NB. this is numbered 10 in the Catalan version], referring to his list no. A 25, notes that 'one part, however, is a copy from an earlier Genoese atlas from c. 1351', i.e. the Medici Atlas (whose calendar starts with that date [on which see Chapter p.448]. On p.504 note 116 he concludes that all the maps were copied by the same hand and that the work was produced, probably somewhere other than Genoa or Venice, in the second quarter of the 15th century and 'based on previous material, including some of the works by Francesco Cesanis'.
      In a personal communication (9 January 2009) Pujades provided a more detailed analysis, which can be summarised thus. From the list of place-names and their spelling it is evident that the first part of the atlas was copied from a lost Genoese atlas, in the tradition of Dulceti. This would have dated from about 1351, which explains the date of the calendar. Some of its Adriatic names, for example artadur, zarona and porto de l'ospitar, are never found on Venetian charts [see Pujades 2007, pp. 350-85]. The Adriatic chart, on the other hand, was copied from a contemporary Venetian atlas (second quarter of the 15th century).
      Falchetta (106 Adriaticus = MED) assigns this to the first half of the 15th century.
      For a contrary view (at least on the dating of the place-names) see my Chapter (p.448), 'Table 19.4 Adriatic names between Otranto and Vlorë (Valona) on the three relevant sheet of the Medici Atlas (see fig. 19.19)'. See also Anonymous works and the question of their attribution (No.37).

78
Florence, Bib.Naz. Centrale, Port. 16. Anon Catalan chart. Dated by Pujades (2007) C 41, c.1440
Pujades (2007) considers this to come from the Vallseca atelier - see p.261 for comparative details supporting the attribution - and also p.493a. See Pujades (2009) pp.116-17 for a double illustration.

For further comments see Anonymous works and the question of their attribution (No.46).

79
Florence, Bib.Naz. Centrale, Port. 22. Catalan chart of the west Mediterranean. Dated by Pujades (2007) C 18, c.1375-1400
See illustration in Pujades (2009) p.72

80
Florence, Bib. Riccard., 3827. Anon chart.
Pujades (2007) p.63 (C 4), describing it as Genoese and dating it to the first quarter of the 14th century. See his Note 4 (p.447, English version) and Note 142 (p.504), where he points out that the dating by Uzielli (1871) to the 15th century has misled subsequent commentators (including myself). It has not been properly described or illustrated before its inclusion on the Pujades DVD. 'The palaeography, the geographic design (it excludes the Canaries and of the British Isles only England appears with an unreal coastline very similar to that of Vesconte's atlas of 1313) and the toponymy (the coastal toponyms amount to fewer that 1,300 as opposed to the over 1,700 in the 1327 chart of Perrino Vesconte or the over 1,600 in that of Angelino de Dulceto, from 1330) loudly proclaim that the chart must be from the first quarter of the 14th century, which would make it one of the oldest extant documents of this kind'. See also Pujades (2007) p.489b, 490b and, for a new a detailed analysis, Anonymous works and the question of their attribution (No.5).

Top of page

For the full details of the works mentioned see the Bibliography

81
Genoa, Bib. Berio. 'Luxoro Atlas', 8 sheets. Pujades (2007) A 14
Pujades (2007) p.504, note 115 confirms the attribution to Francesco Cesanis. Pujades and Falchetta (Periplus Adriaticus = LUX) describe it as 'pre-1421', as being evidently slightly earlier than the dated Cesanis chart of 1421. For further comments see Anonymous works and the question of their attribution (No.26).
     A facsimile 'Atlante Luxoro', was issued by the Biblioteca Berio, Genoa, without text or date. It does however note that the original size has been increased by 44%. The original is 112 x 157 mm, but this reproduction is 16 x 23 cm. Pujades (A 14, p.69) mistakenly gives the larger figure, thus masking the fact that these are the smallest sheets in any surviving portolan atlas (at least pre-1470).

Recent literature:
Portolano. Atlante Luxoro [online description from the Biblioteca Berio (2009) - still dating it to the early 14th century and citing external literature up to 1955 only - accompanied by images which blur when enlarged
Baldacci (1990) - dating it early 14th century (p.74)
?Ferro (1988)
Desimoni & Belgrano - facsimile and commentary (1867) - is available via Google Books.

82
Lucca, Bib. Govern. (Bib. Statale), MSS N.2720. Anon chart.
Astengo (2007) p.245 [ItL1] considers this to be 16th century and assigns it to Conte di Ottomanno Freducci.

83
Mantua, Bib. Com., MS 1032. Anon chart, with a previously suggested date of c.1475 (though Andrews had treated it as 16th century).
Astengo (2007) p.245 [ItMa1] considers this to be 16th century and tentatively assigns it to Salvat de Pilestrina.

84
Milan, Bib. Ambrosiana, F.260 Inf. (1). Bianco chart, 1448.
See Bianco's "London" chart of 1448.

85
Milan, Bib. Ambrosiana, F.260 Inf. (2). Anon chart.
Pujades (2007) p.64 (C 31) considers this to be Venetian and to date from c. 1420 on the grounds (personal communication, December 2008) that the scale bars are similar to those found on the 1421 Cesanis and 1422 Ziroldi charts, and that the compass rose was more elaborate than those found before 1420. See Anonymous works and the question of their attribution (No.25).

88
Milan, Bib. Ambrosiana, S.P.2, 39. Anon, 6-sheet atlas.
Pujades (2007) p. 69 (A 21) confirms the Ziroldi attribution but gives the atlas the very precise date of c. 1446. In a personal communication (December 2008) he explains that the justification for that date lies in the Adriatic toponymy (see his pages 350-73). One particular name urana/la urana he found to be used almost exclusively by Ziroldi, starting in 1443. See also Anonymous works and the question of their attribution (No.33).

89
Milan, Bib. Ambrosiana, 'Maghreb chart'. Now 'S.P.2, 259f', in Pujades's listing (p.65, no. C 54).
Soucek suggested 'first half of the 14th century', as I had done. Pujades, having noted that 'historians have proposed a wide variety of dating for this work, ranging from the 13th to the 15th centuries, although the low number of toponyms has inclined most authors towards the turn of the 13th and 14th centuries', concluded that it 'was copied from a Christian model from the first third of the fifteenth century' (p.508b). He gives it a Tunisian origin.
      Pujades pointed out that the toponymic similarities noted by Vernet between the Maghreb chart and the Luxoro Atlas could, now that the latter is accepted as a 15th-century work, support his own argument for a later date. He also notes the presence on the Maghreb chart of one name, the mouth of the La Sčnia river, which is found first on the 1426 Beccari chart. Pujades considers that the chart's author 'made a quantitatively scant selection of place names that qualitatively focuses on the most important of them'. It does, however, remain the case that I found no names later than 1339 on this chart, which does not, of course, prove that it could not be a much later copy of an earlier work. I would also urge caution about placing too much weight on a single name (unless its historical context is very clear), since there are numerous toponymic 'erratics', or exceptions to the general pattern. If it had one Beccari name, why not others? That said, Pujades supplies other grounds for preferring a 15th-century date.
      Pujades (2007) p.508b notes that 'the coastline is traced out ... with a fine line of ink reinforced on the inner side with a thicker line in ochre. This later is a trait characteristic of cartography from the 1420s and 1430s onwards, found in no extant work from the fourteenth century - see the update page to the Chapter in the History of Cartography - scroll down to 'Coastline marking'. See Vernet-Ginés (1962) for the full Arabic toponymy.

     {From here to the end rewritten or added 2 October 2014}
It is worth noting the unusual construction of this chart. The hidden circle (defining the rhumb line network) is truncated to the east and west, omitting two of the intersection circles along each long side, and thus leaving Portugal (which is included) outside the border as well as most of Ireland (which is therefore omitted). Hence the network had to have been traced, not created mathematically, since most of the lines have no defined start or terminal point.
      This shows that the copyist was just that, not a traditionally-trained chartmaker nor working in a chartmaking atelier. The awkward way that Portugal has fallen outside the frame might be explained by aesthetic rather than practical considerations: the copyist used the outer paired centres down either side as a neat framing device. Likewise the use of paper rather than vellum indicates a non-nautical purpose.
      Although at first glance this might seem like a single sheet from an atlas, the rhumb line evidence contradicts that. Almost all 14th-century charts of the full normal extent used a double rhumb network with the left-hand circle centred near Barcelona, e.g. on the 1327 Vesconte and 1330 Dalorto/Dulceti - just as the Maghreb's is. With the single network, which became the norm in the early 15th century, the centre would be much further to the east, near the south of Italy. Therefore, if it is accepted that the Maghreb chart's incomplete rhumb network was directly copied from an entire western model, the placing of its rhumb centre makes sense only if that model had twin networks. Although the latest recorded use of the double network can be seen on the 1447 Ziroldi chart in the Hispanic Society (Pujades C 45) or the unsigned chart in Barcelona (C 50) - see Billion 2013, p.330 - double networks can generally be considered as an indication of a 14th-century date. William C. Brice, 'Early Muslim Sea-Charts' Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland, 1 (1977): 53-61, especially p.55, had noted that the rhumb pattern exactly coincided with that on the 1330 Dalorto chart. This is broadly true, though the Maghreb chart is not copied from Dalorto (see, as one example, the shape of the Isle of Man).
      One further implication of the unusual, direct copying method should be mentioned. Not only the compass centre near Barcelona would have been predetermined but the entire extent of that extract. In other words the fact that most of the British Isles (of perhaps limited Muslim interest) is included, and just a section of the Maghreb coast, does not reflect any decision by the copyist. The limits would have followed automatically from the initial decision to select a pre-framed section from an original chart of the whole Mediterranean and Black Sea.
      At the 'Cartography between Europe and the Islamic World 1100-1600' conference (Queen Mary, London, 8-9 September 2014) Jeremy Ledger (University of Michigan) put forward arguments for once more dating this chart to the mid-14th century, while drawing attention to its specifically Muslim aspects.

Recent literature:
Soucek (1992), p.288a

90
Milan, Bib. Ambrosiana, S.P.10, 29. Pizzigano, 5-sheet atlas, 1373.
Pujades (2007) p.69 (A 10) dates this '1373-1383', instead of the conventional 1373. In this he follows Falchetta (1995) pp. 37-8 who identified a reference to an event that had occurred in 1381 (personal communication from Ramon Pujades, December 2008). Falchetta (Periplus Adriaticus = PIZ1 & PIZ2) describes the work as '1373-81'.

92
Modena, Estense, C.G.A. 5a (1-2). Anon chart
Astengo (2007) p.245 [ItMo1] comments (Note 24) 'Two fragments by different hands originally glued together but now restored, separated, and framed side by side in the same frame'. He dates them to the 16th century.

93
Modena, Estense, C.G.A. 5b. Anon 15th century chart. Pujades (2007) C 72
Pujades (2009) p.65, considers it to be from Roselli's workshop and dates it to the third quarter of the 15th century. The Il Bulino facsimile (2004) suggests c.1450-60. For further comments see Anonymous works and the question of their attribution (No.51).

Recent literature:
Collezione Portolani. Antiche carte nautiche della Biblioteca Estense Universitaria. (Modena: Il Bulino, 2004) - facsimile with commentary.

94
Modena, Estense, C.G.A. 5c. Portuguese chart, 15th century.
Where Cortesăo had argued for a date of c.1485, Alfredo Pinheiro Marques (1987a), pp.62-6, suggests a date between 1471 (Fernăo Gomes's discoveries of 1471, which are shown) and 1482, when Elmina castle was built (which is not included).

Recent literature:
Collezione Portolani. Antiche carte nautiche della Biblioteca Estense Universitaria. (Modena: Il Bulino, 2004) - facsimile with commentary
Pinheiro Marques (1989b)
Pinheiro Marques (1987a)

95
Modena, Estense, C.G.A. 5d. Anon chart, 15th or 16th century
The Il Bulino facsimile suggests a date of c.1450 but it is not included by Pujades (2009, p.65) in his listing of pre-1470 works.

Recent literature:
Collezione Portolani. Antiche carte nautiche della Biblioteca Estense Universitaria. (Modena: Il Bulino, 2004) - facsimile with commentary

96
Monopoli, Arch. Vescovile, anon. chart fragment.
Astengo (2007) p.245 [ItMn1] describes this as Catalan and tentatively assigns it to the 16th century.

97
Naples, Bib.Naz. Vitt.Eman.III, MS.XII. D 102. Catalan chart. Dated by Pujades (2007) C 19, c.1375-1400
Pujades (2007) p.63 (C 19) amends my call-number (Sala des MSS 8.2)

Online description by Vincenzo Boni, with medium resolution image.

98
Naples, Bib.Naz. Vitt.Eman.III, MS.XV.AA 9(10). Anon ['15th century'] chart
Astengo (2007) p.246 [ItNa12], see Note 27, describes the group, 9(9-11), as 'three loose charts of the Mediterranean', which he assigns to the 17th century.

Top of page

For the full details of the works mentioned see the Bibliography

101
Parma, Bib. Palatina, II, 29, 1621. Dated by Pujades (2007) A 42, c.1450-75

For my recent comments see the Benincasa page, especially under Works plausibly attributable to Benincasa.

103
Parma, Bib. Palatina, II, 32, 1624. 4-sheet atlas, 15th century.
Dating: Falchetta (Periplus Adriaticus = ANPal1): 'mid-15th century'; Pujades '2nd quarter 15th century'.
Pujades (2007), p.69 (A 30) noted that the toponymy of this work had strong similarities with Rovigo, Silvestriano 182 (Census 106) - on which see his pp. 350-97 (see also p.495b). See also Anonymous works and the question of their attribution (No.29).

105
Rome, Soc. Geog. Ital. Canepa chart, 1480.

Recent literature:
Ferro (1991)

106-108
Rovigo, Bib. Accad. dei Concord.
The recent online catalogue (by Leonardo Granata, in 2006) includes descriptions of two of the three atlases (Census 106 & 107), both attributed to the first half of the 15th century [though see contrary comment from Ramon Pujades in the notes below under the separate entries]. They should now be identified by their Silvestriano number. The title of Kupčík's 2004 article in Czech reads in English: 'Unknown portolan atlases from the 15th and beginning of the 16th centuries in Rovigo'.

106
Rovigo, Bib. Accad. dei Concord., 41 (6,6,6) = Silvestriano 182. Anon 8-sheet atlas, and a zodiac table.
Astengo (2007) p.247 [ItRv1] assigns this to the 16th century, but had not examined it.
Dating: Falchetta (Periplus Adriaticus = ANCon1): 'first half 15th century'. Pujades (2007), p.69 (A29) replaces the previous estimate (15th/16th century) with 'second quarter of the 15th century', which fits in with the suggestion by the library's cataloguer of first half of the 15th century. For the entry see here [change 'Library' to Rovigo, and then enter under 'Shelfmark': Silvestriano 182.] Pujades (personal communication, 10 December 2008) considered that the toponymy and appearance suggested the period 1425-50. In his published listing he had noted that the toponymy of this work had strong similarities with Parma, II, 32, 1624 (Census 103) - on which see his pp. 350-97 & 495b. See also Anonymous works and the question of their attribution (No.28).

Recent literature:
Kupčík (2004), commentary in Czech and Plates 1-8

107
Rovigo, Bib. Accad. dei Concord., 41 (6,4,11) = Silvestriano 68. Anon 5-sheet atlas.
Astengo (2007) p.248 [ItRv2] lists this as a 4-sheet atlas (not 8 sheets as I had stated incorrectly) and '16th cent.?'. The library's cataloguer suggests the same date for this as for the preceding, i.e. first half of the 15th century. For the entry see here [change 'Library' to Rovigo, and then enter under 'Shelfmark' Silvestriano 68 .] However, Falchetta (Periplus Adriaticus [=ANCon2] considers it to be a Venetian work of the first half of the 16th century and Pujades (2007), p.423a states that this 'as we now know for certain, dates from the sixteenth century,' although in a private communication (10 December 2008) he thought it might possibly be from the end of the 15th century.

Recent literature:
Kupčík (2004), commentary in Czech and Plates 9-13

108
Rovigo, Bib.Com. e Concord., 486. Anon 3-sheet atlas (15th/16th century), 39.5x28 cm.
There have been doubts about the existence of this third atlas (described by Uzielli and Andrews) and it is not listed by Astengo (2007) or Pflederer (2009). However Kupčík's illustrations shows that it has the usual coverage spread over two sheets, with a third sheet (not clear in the illustration) divided into two half charts, the first repeating coverage of the British Isles and France and the other extending from Spain to the Canaries. Though the black & white illustration is very unclear it is evident that this third sheet is from a different work, displaying different coastlines. Kupčík's text seems to be drawing comparison with the work of the Benincasa's and (p.85) transcribes (presumably from the related pair of full sheets) the 'IRlanda' and 'Lacus fortunatus' legends. The latter apparently has the figure of cccviii islands, i.e. 308, perhaps a mistake for the 368 figure used pre-Benincasa instead of his invariable 367. The diagonal corner scales, however, are a typical feature of charts derived in some way from Benincasa. On that see further under Works by Benincasa's successors and imitators (Rovigo).

Recent literature:
Kupčík (2004), commentary in Czech and Plates 14-16

109
Siena, Bib. Com. SV2. Briaticho, 3-sheet atlas, 1430. Pujades (2007) A 17

Recent literature:
Baldacci (1990), pp.103-7, tav.1-3

110
Venice, Arch. di Stato, LXXXV no.1. Pelekan chart, 1459. Pujades (2007) C 60

Recent literature:
Pujades (2007) p.497a
Tolias (1999) - various refs & plate 1

111
Venice, Arch. di Stato, LXXXV no.2. Fragment of a chart, first half 14th century. Stolen in the late 1940s and hence omitted by Pujades.

112-117
Venice, Bib.Naz.Marciana

Recent literature:
Zorzi (1988)

112
Venice, Marciana, It.Z.76 (4783), Bianco, 7-sheet atlas 1436. Pujades (2007) A 18

Recent literature:
Falchetta (1993)
Milanesi (1996)
Pujades (2007), p.116 - for an enlarged detail of the man with a pair of dividers

113
Venice, Marciana, It.IV, 9 (5090), Anon 3-sheet atlas, last quarter 15th century

Recent literature:
Falchetta (Periplus Adriaticus = ANMar1)

114
Venice, Bib.Naz. Marciana, It.IV, 493 (5077). Anon 4-sheet atlas.
Dating: Falchetta (Periplus Adriaticus = ANMar2): 'first half 15th century'. Pujades (2007) p.69 (A 26) considers this to be a Venetian work of the second quarter of the 15th century, and to have the same source as the chart in the Florence Archives (his C 49, my Census 72), see also his p.496a-b. See also Anonymous works and the question of their attribution (No.38).

115
Venice, Bib.Naz. Marciana, It.IV, 1912 (10057). Anon Catalan chart.
Dated by Pujades (2007) C 15, c.1350-75, following Falchetta (1994) p.26, who concluded, from the lack of a cross over vecina, that it was likely to post-date 1359, while being apparently earlier than the Catalan Atlas of c.1375. {This correction added 16 January 2013}

Recent literature:
Falchetta: Periplus
Falchetta (1994)
Loomer (1986)

116
Venice, Bib.Naz. Marciana, It.VI, 212. Ziroldi, 6-sheet atlas, 1426. Pujades (2007) A 16
See note to Census 158 (below) - Vat. Lat. 9015. See also
Anonymous works and the question of their attribution (No.31).
Reproduced in Cavallo (1992), 1, p.332.

117
Venice, Marciana, It. VI, 213(=5982). 'Combitis Atlas' = Corbitis/Corbizzi, 4 sheets. Pujades (2007) A 11
Corradino Astengo (personal communication, 2 June 1997) wrote that Piero Falchetta (curator at the Marciana) had corrected the reading 'Combitis' to 'Corbitis', being Nicolň De Corbizzi, the name of the owner not author [indeed my 'Census' entry does treat him as the owner (at the end of the 15th century)]. Prof. Astengo noted that the Nicolň da Poggibonsi who went on pilgrimage to the Holy Land about 1350 was the same as Nicolň de Corbizzi. Pujades (2007) p. 445 (No. VI) reproduces the passage in Corbizzi's account referring to a 'carta' and wonders if that might have been this atlas. However, the Chapter (p.396, n.215 and p.419, n.22) assigns this work and the same chartmaker's Pinelli-Walckenaer atlas to the early 15th century on the basis of their toponymy. Might there have been more than one Nicolň De Corbizzi? Pujades (2007) p.69 (A 11) describes the atlas as Venetian and dates it 'end 14th-beginning 15th'; Falchetta (Periplus Adriaticus = COR), says 'end 14th century'.
      See also notes to the same unknown author's Pinelli-Walckenaer Atlas (Census 47).
      In a personal communication (9 January 2009) Pujades refers to a note at the end of the atlas mentioning the work's previous location before it reached the monastery. He considers the hand to be from the first half of the 15th century 'which indicates that the atlas was copied some years before'.

Other recent literature:
Falchetta, L'atlante nautico "Corbitis", giŕ detto "Combitis" (a brief, undated, note - follow ‘sfoglia l'atlante’ for the remainder)
Falchetta (1995) p. 90

118-121a
Venice, Correr

Recent literature:
Biadene & Tonini (2000)

118
Venice, Correr, Port.5. Benincasa, chart of the Adriatic, 1472

Other recent literature:
'XIV-XVIII yüzyil portolan ve deniz haritalan' (1994), pp. 46-7 (illustrated)

119
Venice, Correr, Port. 13. Cesanis chart, 1421. Pujades (2007) C 32
Correction to Manuscript Number: should be Cicogna 3451(not 3453)

Other recent literature:
'XIV-XVIII yüzyil portolan ve deniz haritalan' (1994), pp. 42-3 (illustrated)

120
Venice, Correr, Port. 28. Vesconte, 6-sheet atlas, 1318. Pujades (2007) A 2

Recent literature:
Benedetti (1991)
Tucci (1990)

121
Venice, Correr, Port. 30. Anon chart. Dated by Pujades (2007) C 21, c.1375-1400
Falchetta (1995, pp.37-40) identifies this as the work of one of the Pizzigani (second half of the 14th century), and on the undated website (Periplus Adriaticus = ANCor1): 'last quarter 14th century'.
      The chart 'bears eight medaillons (the eight main winds-directions) with figures of the Virgin, a magician, and so on. The inscriptions around the medaillons are simple "meteorological" sayings and proverbs, written in a language which seems a mixture of Italian, local dialects and perhaps Portuguese.' [email from Falchetta to the MapHist list '03/12/97']. See also Anonymous works and the question of their attribution (No.18).

Other recent literature:
'XIV-XVIII yüzyil portolan ve deniz haritalan' (1994), pp. 54-5 (illustrated) ['beginning of the 16th century?']

121a
Venice, Correr, Port. 40. Anon chart. Dated by Pujades (2007) C 28, beginning of the 15th century
Pujades (2007) p.495a attributes this to Virga. See also Anonymous works and the question of their attribution (No.23).

122
Venice, Museo Storico Navale, ms 1749. Anon chart of the central Mediterranean, though Pujades (2007) p.69 (A 15) treats it as the sole survivor of an atlas.
Falchetta (Periplus Adriaticus = ANNav) and Pujades (2007) both assign this to the first quarter of the 15th century. For further comments see Anonymous works and the question of their attribution (No.27).

Recent literature:
Falchetta (1995) pp.91-2

124
Vicenza, Bib. Civica Bertoliana, MS 524. Anon (trimmed) chart. Dated by Pujades (2007) C 75, c.1450-75 and assigned to a Benincasa atelier. For my recent comments see the Benincasa page, especially under Works plausibly attributable to Benincasa.

125
Volterra, Museo e Bib. Guarn., MS C.N. 1BG. Roselli chart, 1447. Pujades (2007) C 44
Pujades (2007), p.504, note 94 reinterprets the inscription, 'de arte Baptiste Beccarii', as referring, not to direct apprenticeship but rather as an indication that Roselli was following a much-respected model [see also p.493a].

Top of page

For the full details of the works mentioned see the Bibliography

126
Lisbon, Arch. Nat. Torre do Tombo (casa Forte, Fragmentos, caixa 20, no.7). Portuguese chart.
Where Cortesăo had suggested a date of c. 1492-3, Alfredo Pinheiro Marques considers it more likely to be early 16th century (perhaps c.1510), and similar to the Dijon chart (Census A3).

Recent literature:
'Tesouros' (1997), p.118, no.20 (illustrated p.69)
Pinheiro Marques (1989), p.95

127
Barcelona, Arch. de la Corona de Aragón. Anon chart. Dated by Pujades (2007) C 50, c.1425-50
See Anonymous works and the question of their attribution (No.40).

Recent literature:
Conde Delgado de Molina (2001) pp.88-9
Herrera Casais (2008b), p.290, note 38
Rosselló Verger (2000) pp. 89-101, fig. 9, 'c.1420'
Rosselló Verger (1995) pp. 365-7 (illus. p.64)

There is low resolution Online scan on an undated page on the Archives website, describing it as 14th century Venetian..

128
Barcelona, Bib. de Catalunya. Vallseca chart, 1439. Pujades (2007) C 40
Enlargement to the provenance: "passed by descent to Montenegro, Palma (1838); sold 1910 to Pere Bosch i Oliver; to Barcelona, Bib. de Catalunya, but in Museo Marítimo, Inv. no. 3236" [Rossello i Verger (1995) p.369b]. For an explanation of the chart's provenance and ownership see Pujades (2009) pp.281 & 330. A facsimile was produced by Lumen Artis (Barcelona) in 2008.
      Pujades (2007) p.261 shows comparative details of the signed charts of 1439 and 1447 (Census 128 & 17) and unsigned works attributed to Vallseca (Census 22 & 78). He noted (p.493a) two different hands on this chart.

Recent literature:
Pujades (2009) (a detailed study accompanied by a high-quality facsimile, also double-page illustration pp.108-9)
Cavallo (1992, ed. - illus. 1:435)
Ginard Bujosa (1989)
Llompart i Moragues (1988)
Lopez (1995)
Martínez-Hidalgo (1985)
Rosselló Verger (1995) pp. 369-71 (illus. p.65)
Schnayder (1984)

129
Palma de Mallorca, Fund. Bart.March Servera. Benincasa chart, 1468. Pujades (2007) C 69

Recent literature:
Anon. Exposicion de cartografia mallorquina (1990) pp.14-15
Ginard Bujosa (2006) p.73, reproduced on p.76
Rosselló Verger (1995) (illus. p.66)

131
Zurich, Zentralbib., R.P.4. Perrino Vesconte, 4-sheet atlas, 1321. Pujades (2007) A 7

Recent literature :
Claudia Rütsche, Die Kunstkammer in der Zürcher Wasserkirche (Bern: Peter Lang, 1997), p.431 (referring to the provenance: from Jost Murer in the mid-16th century and then listed in an early-18th century inventory compiled by Johann Jakob Scheuchzer of the city's Kunstkammer, then housed on the first floor of the Wasserkirche) [I owe this reference to Peter Barber.]
Benedetti (1991)

Online scan (enlargeable to medium resolution - front and back covers, calendar and the four charts, with description in German)

132
Istanbul, Naval Museum. al-Mursi chart, 1461. Pujades (2007) C 61 [no scan supplied]
Herrera Casais (2009) p.231 notes that this is largely based on a work similar to the Bertran & Ripoll chart of 1456 - the first time a Majorcan model for an Arabic chart has been identified.

Recent literature:
Comes Maymó (2007, 2008)
Goodrich (1993), p.120
Herrera Casais (2011)
Herrera Casais (2009), pp.231-3 (illustrating, p.135, a detail of Spain)
Herrera Casais (2008b), p.285, note 11 (for further references)
Leitner (1982)
Sezgin (2000-07) 11: 32-3, 40, 136; 12: pl.37
Soucek (1992), 264-5, fig. 14.3
Uçar (1981)

133-135
Istanbul, Topkapi Sarayi
Recent literature:
Goodrich (1993)

133
Istanbul, Topkapi Sarayi, H.1826. J. de Viladesters chart, 1428. Pujades (2007) C 38 [no scan supplied]

Recent literature:
Pujades (2009) see double-page illustration pp.78-9 and detail of the western half, pp.80-1. Note that a scan of this chart could not be included on the 2007 Pujades DVD.
'XIV-XVIII yüzyil portolan ve deniz haritalan' (1994), pp. 44-5 (illustrated)

136
Istanbul, Topkapi Sarayi, (49356/2753) - corrected to Hazine 1823 (formerly Karatay no.1407) [Herrera Casais p.284 & note 6]. "Kâtibî chart, 1413" - author corrected to Ahmad al-Tanji, Hijra 816, i.e. 1413-14 [Herrera Casais p. 286, note 13]. Pujades (2007) C 29 [no scan supplied]

Recent literature:
'XIV-XVIII yüzyil portolan ve deniz haritalan' (1994), pp. 40-1 (illustrated) ['Tancali Ahmed']
Goodrich (1993), p.129
Herrera Casais (2008b) [a study of this chart assigned to "Ahmad al-Tanji", or, in full, "Ahmad b. Sulayman al-Tanji", made in Tunis in 1413-14; for the full literature and further reproductions see her note 1]
Özdemir (1992), pp.120-3
Soucek (1992), pp.264-5, fig. 14.2
Sezgin (2000-07), 11: 31-2, 39-40, 136; 12: pl. 36; 13: pp.13ff
Sezgin (1987), pl. 18
Uçar (1987), p.225

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For the full details of the works mentioned see the Bibliography

138
Chicago, Newberry Library, Smith, Ayer Coll.2. Anon 15th century, 6-sheet atlas.
Pujades (2007) p.69 (A 22) confirms the work's Venetian origin and the attribution to Ziroldi. However, he provides a very precise date, c. 1446 . In a personal communication (December 2008) he explains that the justification for that date lies in the Adriatic toponymy (see his pages 350-73). One particular name urana/la urana he found to be used almost exclusively by Ziroldi, starting in 1443. See Anonymous works and the question of their attribution (No.34).

Recent literature:
Pflederer ('Catalogues' 2005)

139
Chicago, Newberry Library, Smith, Ayer Coll.3. Roselli chart, 1456. Pujades (2007) C 59

Recent literature:
Pflederer ('Catalogues' 2005)

141-143
Minneapolis, J.F. Bell Library

Recent literature:
Urness (1999)

141
Minneapolis, J.F. Bell Lib. 'Pizzigano chart', 1424. Pujades (2007) C 35

Literature:
Anon. Portugal Brazil: the Age of Atlantic Discoveries (1990)
Cortesăo (1954, 1970)
Nebenzahl (1990)
Pujades (2007) p.447, note 7 pointed out that 'the name of the author was erased from the legend and written in again much later'
See also Innovative Names (Pizzigano)

Online scan

142
Minneapolis, J.F. Bell Lib. Roselli chart, 1466. Pujades (2007) C 67

Online scan

143
Minneapolis, J.F. Bell Lib. Canepa chart, 1489

Online scan

144
New Haven, Yale Univ. Lib., Art Object 1980.158. F. Beccari chart, 1403. Pujades (2007) C 25

The Statement to the Reader is transcribed (but not translated) in Pujades (2007, p.461). For comments on the two Black Sea charts copied from lost works of Beccari see under Cornaro Atlas in 'Anonymous works and the question of their attribution to individual chartmakers or to their supposed workshops'.

Literature:
Lepore et al. (2011, pp.129-35 - arguing that the latitude scale, previously considered to be a later addition, is in fact an original feature
Sheehan (2012)

Online scan

145
New Haven, Yale Univ. Lib., 49cea/1425. Anon chart. Dated by Pujades (2007) C 71, c.1450-75 and attributed to a Roselli workshop.

For comments on the supposed attribution to Roselli see Anonymous works and the question of their attribution (No.50).

Online scan

146
New Haven, Yale Univ. Lib., 30cea/1492. Aguiar chart, 1492.

Recent literature:
Anon. Portugal Brazil: the Age of Atlantic Discoveries (1990)
Guerreiro (1992) [accompanying a facsimile]
Pinheiro Marques (1989b)
Pinheiro Marques (1987a)
Pinheiro Marques (1987b), p.75, doubting the attribution to the East Indies captain

Online scan [Another good scan is available from Wikipedia.

147-150
New York, Hispanic Society
Recent literature:
Sider et al.(1992)

147
New York, Hispanic Society, K4. Ziroldi chart, 1447 {recently read signature and date). Pujades (2007) C 45
Sider notes that, 'after recent cleaning and conservation treatment, the following inscription can be read with the aid of an ultraviolet lamp and magnifying glass: Jacobus de Ziroldis de venecijs me fecit in ano dni m.cccc.xlvii'.

Recent literature:
Sider (1992), p.4

149
New York, Hispanic Soc., K15. Anon chart. Late 15th or early 16th century
Provenance correction: ex Hiersemann, Leipzig 1906 (not 1909)
Pujades (2007), who had included this as an anon. chart of pre-1470, from Roselli's atelier, adds a note to the DVD (under C 73) pointing out that only once he had seen the scan did he realise that it is a Venetian chart. He dates it to the end of the 15th or, more probably, the beginning of the 16th 'although it features a number of Catalan legends, toponyms and ornamental motifs copied from an earlier Majorcan chart.'

Recent literature:
Sider et al. (1992), p.7

150 New York, Hispanic Soc., K35. Roselli chart, 1468. Pujades (2007) C 68
Recent literature:
Sider et al. (1992), p.3

151
San Marino, Henry E. Huntington Lib., HM 1548. Anon late 15th century chart.

Recent literature:
Dutschke (1989)
Pflederer ('Catalogues' 2004)

Online scan (with link to an enlarged, high resolution picture)

152
Washington, Library of Congress, Ristow & Skelton 3. Anon 14th century chart. Dated by Pujades (2007) C 10, c.1325-50
Pujades (2007), p.490b considers this to be closely related to Paris, MS Italien 1704 (Census 30), on the basis of its toponymy (see his pp. 350-97). See Anonymous works and the question of their attribution (No.8).

Online scan (high resolution, JPEG2000 image, of the trimmed chart, extending from the Balearic Is to the Holy Land).

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For the full details of the works mentioned see the Bibliography

153
Vatican, Borgiano V. Anon chart. Fra Mauro workshop?

Recent literature:
Almagiá, Monumenta Cartographica Vaticana 1: 32-40, identified this as the product of Fra Mauro's workshop, and hence much influenced by Bianco's 1436 atlas
Astengo (2007) p.259 [V15bis] assigns it to the 16th century
Falchetta (Periplus Adriaticus = MAU) dates it tentatively to the period 1450-59.
Falchetta (1995) - a long, itself footnoted, footnote (pp. 55-8) ends (points 4 & 5) by favouring an attribution to Benincasa during the period he was (mostly) in Venice (1463-74).
Pujades (2007) does not include this is his listing of pre-1470 works
Ratti (1988), on which see for a note about a later copy of a Fra Mauro-inspired chart by Callapoda, 1541.
For my recent comments see the Benincasa page, especially under Works by Benincasa's successors and imitators.

154
Vatican, Borgia VII. Jehuda ben Zara chart, 1497.
Reproduced by Belvedere Press, New York (1987?)

Recent literature:
Dürst (1983) - accompanying a Belser facsimile
Mesenburg (1987)
Sider (1998a) - accompanying a Belser facsimile

155
Vatican, Pal.Lat.. 1362A. Vesconte, 5-sheet atlas. Pujades (2007) A 4
Pujades (2007) p.69 dates this '132[1]'; Falchetta (Periplus Adriaticus = VESR1): '1320 or 1321'

158
Vatican, Vat.Lat. 9015. Anon, 3-sheet atlas.
Previously assigned to Ziroldi and thought to be securely dated 1452, this is described by Pujades (2007) p.70 (A 31) as a Venetian work dating from the second quarter of the 15th century. Like others before him, Pujades (p.496a) considers this atlas to be in the hand of the person responsible for the Adriatic chart in the 1426 Ziroldi atlas, his A 16 (my Census 116), Venice, Marciana, It.VI, 21. However (personal communication, 23 December 2008), he confirmed that the toponymy of those two works - on which see his pp.350-97 - is not that of Ziroldi. Rather, the Adriatic chart was added to the atlas some time later. Pujades did not use the calendar date of "el presente ano" 1452 (Chapter p.447) for the atlas as a whole because he thought it might be a later addition.

160
Vatican, Vat.Lat. 14207. Anon chart fragment. Dated by Pujades (2007) C 12, to the mid-14th century.
Pujades (2007) p.491b speculates that this Majorcan chart might be by Guillem Canterelles (documented as working in the period 1353-62, as a compass-maker).

 

Census entries now generally considered to be 16th century

[see note under the appropriate entry above]

    35
    82
    83
    92
    96?
    98 (17th century)
    107
    126

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In non-institutional hands (161-180)

161
[Prince Youssouf Kamal, Cairo], an incomplete anonymous chart, covering the eastern half only. Pujades (2007) C 23
In 'Census' note 36 (p.70) it was stated that the Kamal material had 'supposedly' been split between three Cairo institutions: the University Library, the Egyptian Geographical Society and the Institut d'Egypte. No answers could be obtained from any of those institutions. Now, in a review of a work about the Catalan Atlas (Imago Mundi 62:2 (2010): 253) it is stated that the chart illustrated in Kamal's great work (4: II, ff.1205-1206) is now kept in the Dar Al Kutub (National Library and Archives of Egypt). It is there described as being from the first half of the 14th century, where Pujades in 2007 had assigned it to the end of that century. And the cited Kamal folios (1205-06) are not consistent with my Census entry which states ff.1206-07. {**This point cannot be checked at present}. However, it seems highly unlikely that two charts are involved, and one of those folio citations must be incorrect.

163
[Weiss & Co, Munich 1926]. '1404 adi primo auosto Sentuzo Pongeto fezit'.
The chart does not appear to have been seen since 1926. The careful drawing of Venice's campanile suggests a Venetian origin. The DVD accompanying Pujades (2007), C 26 reproduces the three details given in the Weiss catalogue. The chart extends from Jutland, with the British Isles, south to the west coast of Africa as far as Cape Blanco and east to the Black Sea. One of the details includes a small section of the north French coast, with 36 names between Calais and Bénodet.

165
Chart fragment. Sotheby's 22 February 1972, Lot 537 - see E.5

166
Florence, Prince Corsini. Dalorto/Dulceti chart - date confirmed as 1330 by Pujades.

Recent literature:
Irás (2007)
Pujades (2007) C 7, & p.491. Having examined the inscriptions on the Corsini chart (whose date he confirms as 1330 not 1325) and the BnF 1339 chart (Census 13) he concluded that the supposed 'Dalorto' signature was the result of a mixture of careless conservation and pre-supposition. He read 'de Dulceto' on the Corsini chart and 'Dulceti' on that in Paris.

169
Forli, Count Merenda, chart by Pietro Russo. 'Missing since the Second World War' - Astengo (2007) p.178. Probably 16th century, see 'Chapter' p.458 (first note)

171
Unsigned chart, first half 15th century (Genoa, Amedeo Dallai).
Pujades (2007) p. 66 (C 37), assigns this chart to the Beccari atelier, with the very precise date of c. 1426. His reasons (personal communication, December 2008) follow examination of the partial illustrations of the damaged (and now unlocated) chart in Paolo Revelli, 'Una nuova carta di Batista Beccari ('Batista Becharius')?', Bollettino della Societŕ Geografica Italiana 88 (1951): 156-66. Pujades identified some typically Beccari names in the Adriatic and the city vignettes, which seemed in style nearer to the 1426 Beccari chart than the one of 1435 - on which see his pp.350-97.

177
Amsterdam, Nico Israel. Fragmentary chart. Dated by Pujades (2007) C 9bis, c.1325-50
Pujades (2007), p.447, note 5, doubts the attribution to Perrino Vesconte. The only available reproduction (Sotheby's) was of insufficient quality to read the names 'of the most active areas from the toponymic point of view (above all the northern Adriatic)' and he finds typical Vescontian names missing and others in 'peculiar' spellings - on which see his pp.350-97. He finds instead that the chart is more closely related to his C 10 (my Census 152, Library of Congress) and C 11 (my Census 30, Paris BnF, ms Ital. 1704), with the scale similar to that on the Library of Congress. He dates all three of those to the second quarter of the 14th century. See also E.18.

180
Washington, C.C., Otto H.F. Vollbehr. Roselli chart, 1469.
See E.20.

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Supplement A: 'Works now thought to be later than 1500, irrelevant works and false locations'

A3
Dijon, Bib. municipale, MS 550 (ex 313). Anon chart.
Alfredo Pinheiro Marques accepts the dating of this Portuguese chart as c.1510 in La Roncičre & Mollat du Jourdin (1984) but disputes that the presence of a vignette of Genoa points to Genoese authorship. He pointed out that Portuguese charts often had such vignettes.

Recent literature:
Pinheiro Marques (1987b), pp.83-5
Raynaud-Nguyen (1986)

Online scan (from this 'Subject' list select 'CADA/CHAR', then 'carte', which brings up two portolan works, this (described as 16th century) and the Lyons atlas (Census 8)]

A4
Paris, BnF B 1119, anon chart
Kamal, 4,3,1335

A6A
Paris, BnF Ge F 2428, Domenico Pizigano, map/chart of the coast of 'Syria'
[Côte de Syrie entre Tyr et Rhinocolura (El. Arich)] 'Marinus Sanutus Syriae terrae loca signavit A. MCCCL. Dominicus Pizigano, fecit'. 23 x 15 cm. The BnF description is of a facsimile; the original was described (and apparently illustrated) by Cortambert in 1866, as being on vellum, but barely legible because of the strong green colour over the sea. It had been 'recently' acquired by the imperial library, from a sale in London of Venetian material. It was cited by Köberer (1986) in a list of portolan charts. No reproduction is apparently available.
      Cortesăo (1971) described it as a 'small chart', but had earlier (1954) referred to it as a 'map'. He cites as source, E. Cortambert, 'Note sur trois cartes manuscrites des XIIIe et XIVe sičcles récemment acquises par la Section Géographique de la Bibliothčque Impériale', Bulletin de la Société de Géographie (Paris) 12 (October 1866) pp.332-40 (especially 339-40) [available via Gallica.] Although Domenico Pizigano was one of those responsible for the 1367 chart produced in Venice, this is evidently a version of the Sanudo map and not a portolan chart.

Recent literature:
Cortesăo (1954) p.20
Cortesăo (1971) II, p.44, note 108
Köberer (1986)

A9
Munich, Bay. Staatsbib. Cod. icon. 138/40, f.82 [or Cod. icon 140 f.82], anon chart.
Pinheiro Marques (1989b), p.96, note 2, accepts my suggested dating of c. 1510 for a chart previously assigned to c.1500 (see 'Chapter' p.386a). However, Kupčík (2000) pp.110-14, who does not here cite either the Campbell Census or Chapter, repeats the c.1500 dating. The comprehensive listing of post-1500 works by Astengo (2007) p.242 does not list it.

A10
Munich, Universitätsbib., Cim 20. Anon, 4-sheet atlas
Kupčík (2000) p. 120, which dates this work c. 1509 (where the Campbell Census had given a date of post-1509) pointed out that the reason for that - the Spanish flags in N. Africa - had been noted in a work not previously consulted by myself or, it seems, most earlier commentators, namely: Walther Ruge, 'Älteres kartographisches Material in deutschen Bibliotheken. Vierter Bericht über die Jahre 1906-1909', Nachrichten von der Königlichen Gesellschaft der Wissenschaften zu Göttingen, Philol.- Historische Klasse. Beiheft 35-166 (Göttingen, 1911) 46f, No.10 [reprinted Liechtenstein 1967]. Kupčík illustrates ff. 2v-3r of the atlas. However, the latitude scale down the left margin, which is cited by Ruge as one of the reasons for a later dating than the 1453 suggested by Rey Pastor & García Camarero (1960) p.85, is presumably a later addition.

Additional entry

London, British Library Add. MS.17539.
This had been attributed to Bartolomeo Columbus '1493', but the cross over Malta shows that it must be post-1530.

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Supplement B: 'Misleading or mistaken dates by earlier authorities and confusion of authorship'

It could be worth checking on the comments of John Holmes, in charge of manuscript maps in the British Museum (now British Library) until his death in service in 1854. He was responsible for most of the work on the three-volume catalogue of the Museum's manuscript maps (1844-61). His unpublished notes on manuscript maps survive as Add. MSS 20751-3 & 20774. In Add. MS 20752 f.29, for example, he cites various mistaken dates for portolan charts. And in Add. MS 20774 ff.22-3 he discusses the provenance of seventeen supposed works by Grazioso Benincasa. These notes (of which I only became aware after the Chapter was published) might well merit transcribing; they should certainly be looked at by scholars interested in the state of knowledge at that time, and at provenance issues.


Corrections to the Chronological index

(see p. 92 in the 'Census')

The work of Pujades and Falchetta in particular has led to several suggested dates being revised, and even a few confident dates being altered - see Census 166 (the 'Dalorto' chart whose date was formerly read as 1325 but is now confirmed as 1330) and Census 1 (the 'Pasqualini' atlas whose supposed date of 1408 is now considered to be 1448). Forensic work on the supposedly Ziroldi chart in the Hispanic Society revealed his signature and provided the date of 1447. As listed after the entry for No. 160, several supposedly 15th century works have now been moved after 1500. For a summary listing of the best current information on estimated dates see the Microsoft Excel spreadsheet A complete chronological listing of works assigned to the period pre-1501 and its Explanation. This includes concordances between the listings of early portolan charts by Campbell (1986) and Pujades (2007), and offers pre-sorted sequences by date, author and location.

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For full details of all the references cited see Bibliography comprising literature since 1986 (and missed earlier publications) as well as references for all the portolan chart pages
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