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Cartographic fakes and forgeries


This listing includes general works and those listed in the 'References' column of the Index table

Other, more detailed, works will be found at the end of the individual entries in the 'Notes on selected maps' page

Index to known fakes, forgeries and deceptive facsimiles (a Microsoft Word table that opens separately)

Allen, David Y., 'The So-Called "Velasco Map": A Case of Forgery?', Coordinates: Online Journal of the Map and Geography Round Table, American Library Association, ser. A, no.5 (February 14, 2006). [Velasco Map, on which see also Seaver below, and Web Articles: The Americas (under 'Velasco')].

Bagrow, Leo, 'The Maps from the Home Archives of the Descendants of a friend of Marco Polo', Imago Mundi, 5 (1948): 3-13. [Rossi Map Collection].

Bagrow, Leo (revised and enlarged by R.A. Skelton), History of Cartography (London: Watts, 1964), pp.285-7 [on facsimile atlases].

Baynes-Cope, Arthur David, 'The Investigation of a Group of Globes', Imago Mundi, 33 (1981): 9-19 [followed by a 'Note on Radiocarbon of the Ambassadors' Globe' by Richard Burleigh, p.20] [Globes and globe gores].

Broecke, Marcel P.R. van den, 'Unmasking a forgery: recognising a real Ortelius', Mercator's World, 3:3 (May/June 1998): 46-9. [ Ortelius America (variant (B))].

Broecke, Marcel P.R. van den, 'Unmasking another forgery of an Ortelius atlas map: Iceland', Journal of the International Map Collectors' Society, 106 (Autumn 2006): 7-9. [ Ortelius Iceland].

Broecke, Marcel P.R. van den, 'Last comments on the alleged Ortelius forgery', Journal of the International Map Collectors' Society, 108 (Spring 2007): 50 [responding to Lázló Gróf's comments above about the Iceland map forgery].

Brown, Kevin, 'Is my Antique Map Authentic? Breaking Down the Rare and Antique Map Authentication Process' - on his Geographicus Antique Map blog, 10 February 2010.

Buehler, Michael, How do I know it’s real? (in the Boston Rare Maps Newsletter No.1 [undated])

['Burden 1']. Burden, Philip D., The Mapping of North America: a List of Printed Maps 1511-1670 (Rickmansworth: Raleigh Publications, 1996). [With Corrigenda and Addenda at the beginning of vol. II (2007), and further information added to a dynamic website.]
['Burden 2']. The Mapping of North America II: a List of Printed Maps 1671-1700 (Rickmansworth: Raleigh Publications, 2007). [With Corrigenda and Addenda being added to a dynamic website.]

Cardinal, Louis, 'Record of an ideal: Father Francesco Giuseppe Bressani's 1657 map of New France', The Portolan 61 (Winter 2004-2005): 13-28. [Bressani].

Dahl, Edward H., 'Facsimile maps and forgeries', Archivaria, 10 (Summer 1980): 261-263.

Dahl, Edward H., 'A second Bressani original of New France comes to light', The Map Collector, 63 (1993): 42-3 [discussing a 20th century restrike of the left of two sheets - but with added details], and 'Addendum' [i.e. correction] in The Map Collector, 64 (1993): 51 [reproducing the two joined sheets of the original printing, in Vienna]. [Bressani].

Du Mont, John S., 'Engraved Maps on Powder Horns', The Map Collector, 33 (1985): 3-7, see pp.6-7.

Duncker, Dieter, 'Antique Maps - Recognising the difference between old and modern colouring' on Kunstpedia (20 September 2008).

Edney, Matthew, ‘An early color facsimile: hand-applied or printed?’ (discussing an 1856 copy of the 1547 Nicolas Vallard atlas - 'Mapping as Process' blog, 18 May 2021).

Gaffney, Dennis, 'Tips of the Trade: Verifying Antique Maps', Antiques Roadshow [illustrated advice from Chris Lane, of the Philadelphia Print Shop].

Gehring, Charles and William Starna, 'A Case of Fraud: The Dela Croix Letter and Map of 1634', New York History, 66:3 (July, 1985): 249-61.

Gent, R.H. van, 'Andreas Cellarius (c. 1595-1665): A Bio-Bibliographical Overview'.

Gróf, Lázló, 'Ortelius forgery?', Journal of the International Map Collectors' Society, 107 (Winter 2006): 32-3 [letter, touching on a number of forgery topics, responding to Marcel van den Broecke's article on the Ortelius map of Iceland].

Hall, Debbie. 'Copy, reconstruction or fake?' (an illustrated note about one, or perhaps two, Derveaux plans of Paris; for the Bodleian Map Room Blog, 11 May 2023)

Koeman, Cor, 'An increase in facsimile reprints', Imago Mundi, 18 (1964): 87-8 [a good summary of what had been produced by that date].

Kok, Hans, 'Distinguishing fake from real' (Bulletin No. 2 of the International Map Collectors' Society (IMCoS), originally published in the IMCoS Journal.

Krogt, Peter van der, Globi Neerlandici: the production of globes in the Low Countries (Utrecht: HES, 1993), p.522.

Layland, Michael, 'Geographical clues to suspect maps', The Map Collector, 69 (1994): 52 [a letter about some of the Portolan charts described by Woodward].

Library and Archives Canada, 'Detecting the Truth: Fakes, Forgeries and Trickery' [the map example is concerned with plagiarism, but there are technical explanations about the uncovering of other kinds of deception].

McCorkle, Barbara B., New England in Early Printed Maps, 1513 to 1800: An Illustrated Carto-Bibliography (Providence: The John Carter Brown Library, 2001).

McGuirk, Donald L., 'Variant impressions of 1520 Apianus World map', The Map Collector, 66 (1994): 53 [an illustrated letter].

McGuirk, Donald L., '1520 Apianus World Map: Census and Commentary' [unpublished text of a paper presented to the International Conference on the History of Cartography (Vienna, 13 September 1995) and to the Society for the History of Discoveries (Arlington, 3 November 1995) - detailing two forgeries of that map - see his message to MapHist on 1 September 2005].

McGuirk, Donald L., 'The forgotten "First map with the name of America" (the 1520 Apianus world map); history, census and comparison with the Waldseemüller 1507 world map', The Portolan: Journal of the Washington Map Society 77 (Spring 2010): 26-36. [Identifying three 'old reproductions' (pp.32-3).]

McIntosh, Gregory C., 'More about fake maps', The Map Collector, 69 (1994): 52 [a letter about some of the Portolan charts described by Woodward].

McIntosh, Gregory C., Antique Map Reproductions: A Directory of Publishers & Distributors of Antique Map, Atlas & Globe Facsimiles & Reproductions (Plus Ultra Pub Co , 1998).

Manasek, Francis J., 'Facsimiles, Forgeries, and Other Copies', in Collecting Old Maps (Norwich Vt.: Terra Nova Press, 1998): 73-82 [providing good descriptions, e.g. of photogravure (p.74)].

Manasek, Francis J., 'How to spot these fakes: identifying a new breed of counterfeit maps', Mercator's World, 6:2 (March/April 2001): 18-23; and the letters that resulted, Mercator's World, 6:4 (July-August 2001). {NB. These links via the Internet Archive sometimes do not work.} [Describing the map of North America by A.Bell (plate XCI of Encyclopedia Britannicaof 1768-71) and 'North America from the best Authorities' by B.Baker (c.179-[?])].

MapHist list. The list's archive, readily available back to January 2002, has been a major source for these pages. However, the messages are sometimes formatted in html, with each paragraph forming a single, extended line. This makes reading difficult. The best solution, apparently, is to copy the message into a blank email or a word processing page, where it should output sensibly.

The Map Room: a Weblog about Maps, see the Hoaxes & Controversies Archives.

Missinne, Stefan, 'Ivory globes: distinguishing elephant ivory from calcium carbonate, or distinguishing the real from the fake', Journal of the International Map Collectors' Society ,79 (Winter 1999): 25-8. [Comparing three genuine miniature ivory terrestrial globes (one by J. Lilley, c. 1826) and two fakes in the 'Weisinger Collection' (Nos. 31 & 32)].

Moreland, Carl and David Bannister, Antique Maps: a collector's handbook (London & New York: Longman, 1983) p.285-6 ('Reproductions, fakes and forgeries').

The Hoax Museum Blog (a search of the site found a number of references to maps - Marquette, Vinland, etc. - but this was not systematically checked).

Olshin, Benjamin B., 'The Mystery of the ‘Marco Polo’ Maps: An Introduction to a Privately-Held Collection of Cartographic Materials Relating to the Polo Family', Terrae Incognitae, 39 (2007): 1-23 [on the Rossi Collection associated with Marco Polo, finding no evidence that they are fake]. [Rossi Map Collection].

Seaver, Kirsten A., 'Commentary to 'The So-Called Velasco Map: A Case of Forgery?', Coordinates: Online Journal of the Map and Geography Round Table, American Library Association, ser. B, no.5 (February 14, 2006)) [ Velasco Map].

Shirley, Rodney W., 'The map that never was', The Map Collector, 53 (1990): 8-13 [on the Bertram/Stukeley map of Roman Britain] [Bertram/Stukeley]. The article has been reissued online by Kunstpedia.

Shirley, Rodney W., The Mapping of the World: Early Printed World Maps, 1472-1700 (Holland Press, 1983, and subsequent editions, some with Corrections and Additions).

Unno, Kazutaka, Chizu no Shiwa: Creases of Map or Essays on the History of Cartography (Tokyo: Yushodo Press, 1985). [Review by John Sargent in Imago Mundi, 41 (1989): 155, stating that it includes a section on 'fake and imitation maps'].

Weber, Carl J., The Jacques Marquette Map of 1673-74 a Hoax? [See also the entry for Marquette].

Woodward, David, 'Could these Italian maps be fakes?', The Map Collector, 67 (1994): 2-10 [a well-illustrated article on a group of supposedly early 16th century maps showing the world and early discoveries of America]. [Portolan charts].

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Index to known fakes, forgeries and deceptive facsimiles (a Microsoft Word table that opens separately)

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