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Imago Mundi


Imago Mundi volume 51 (1999)
English-language Abstracts


1. EASTER TABLES AND THE PSEUDO-ISIDOREAN VATICAN MAP. LEONID S. CHEKIN

Analysis of the Easter tables in the Vatican Library manuscript Vat. Lat. 6018 reveals traces of a Byzantine original and shows that the tables were compiled and probably written down in Italy between 762 and 777. The map in the same manuscript, traditionally known as the Isidorean map, is closely associated with the tables and should also be assigned a date within the same time range.

2. AN EARLY THIRTEENTH-CENTURY MAP IN DUBLIN: A WINDOW INTO THE WORLD OF GIRALDUS CAMBRENSIS. THOMAS O'LOUGHLIN

An early thirteenth-century manuscript (Dublin, N.L.I. 700) of two works of Giraldus Cambrensis (Gerald of Wales, c.1146--c.1223) also contains a map of Europe, of which no close parallels are known. While it is integral to the manuscript, it has no obvious relationship with either of the texts. The outlines of the map were derived from earlier and contemporary world maps and its principal contents from itineraries; its core is an itinerary from Britain to Rome. Overall, the map displays a sophisticated awareness of the role of generalization and also shows how insular clerics viewed the continent and their location relative to Rome. It is suggested that the entire manuscript belonged to Giraldus, and that he was in some way involved with the creation of the map.

3. THE PINCHBECK FEN MAP: A FIFTEENTH-CENTURY MAP OF THE LINCOLNSHIRE FENLAND. ROSE MITCHELL AND DAVID CROOK

This paper examines the significance of a rediscovered medieval map (Public Record Office, MPCC 7) of part of the Fenlands of eastern England, previously dated to the mid-sixteenth century but now recognized as mid-fifteenth century. The map portrays realistically two important monastic churches, Sempringham Priory and Spalding Priory, which did not survive the Reformation and for which no other contemporary representations are known to exist. Documentary evidence suggests that the map was made at Spalding Priory to record rights to pasture animals in Pinchbeck Fen, and that it passed to the Duchy of Lancaster at the dissolution of the monasteries.

4. FRANCESCO II GONZAGA AND MAPS AS PALACE DECORATION IN RENAISSANCE MANTUA. MOLLY BOURNE

Francesco II Gonzaga, fourth Marquis of Mantua (1484-1519), commissioned sophisticated painted cycles of maps and city views for his two country palaces at Gonzaga and Marmirolo and for his Mantuan townhouse, the Palazzo di San Sebastiano. Archival research enables us to reconstruct these lost cartographical ensembles, which constitute important early examples of a genre of palace decoration which became fashionable in Renaissance Italy. Francesco's efforts to collect the highest-quality cartographical materials for the creation of these map cycles are chronicled in his correspondence, which reveals him to have been a well-informed patron, capable of uncompromising standards and discriminating taste.

5. CARTOGRAPHY, AUTOCRACY AND STATE POWERLESSNESS: THE USES OF MAPS IN EARLY MODERN RUSSIA. VALERIE A. KIVELSON

Historians have focused much attention on the ways in which the rising monarchies of early modern Europe crushed or incorporated the peripheries of their territories into a uniform and unifying state system. Examination of nearly 500 Russian property-litigation maps from the second half of the seventeenth century demonstrates that elimination of local power bases need not accompany state-generated mapping programmes. On the contrary, a quite different and much more evenly balanced process of negotiation and interplay between local and central authority facilitated the construction of an extensive, intrusive state. The maps, together with the legal documents that accompany them, also demonstrate that the Romanov regime---often considered the highest expression of early modern absolutism---frequently found itself entangled in its own laws and regulations. The overview presented in this paper of Russian local maps and the legal context which gave rise to them allows for a re-reading of centre--periphery relationships in the Russian tsardom and suggests a new understanding of the rise of autocratic states in general.

6. MAPPING RELATIONSHIPS: ALLEGORY, GENDER AND THE CARTOGRAPHICAL IMAGE IN EIGHTEENTH-CENTURY FRANCE AND ENGLAND. FRANZ REITINGER

Among the allegorical maps of early modern times, those relating to romantic attachments, sexual relationships and marriage have long excited curiosity among students of literature and the history of cartography. These maps describe states of married and non-married life, irrespective of social acceptability, and chart the course for the prospective matrimonial traveller. Profoundly allegorical, closely tied to contemporary social and literary trends, and full of word play, the maps are not always easy to understand. The aim in this paper is to provide a comprehensive overview of the genre of `sentimental' allegorical maps and an analysis of the literary and political situations which gave rise to them. Their key role in gender issues and in the promotion of new ideals of femininity in France and England from the seventeenth to the nineteenth century is examined.

7. THE ORDNANCE SURVEY'S NINETEENTH CENTURY BOUNDARY SURVEY: CONTEXT, CHARACTERISTICS AND IMPACT. DAVID FLETCHER

The Ordnance Survey's Boundary Survey, carried out between 1841 and 1888, was a major undertaking which resulted in the local administrative boundaries of the whole of Great Britain being reliably mapped for the first time. This was not achieved by imposition but by the use of local knowledge of boundaries, thus making permanent a communal memory of administrative geography and rendering it globally accessible through maps. The Boundary Survey aided the reform of local government areas, a process which started during the same period and provided derived data for the burgeoning collection of statistics in the nineteenth century.

8. MAPPING MUSSOLINI: RITUAL AND CARTOGRAPHY IN PUBLIC ART DURING THE SECOND ROMAN EMPIRE. HEATHER HYDE MINOR

The four map tablets prominently displayed on the Via dell'Impero in the heart of ancient Rome have been either ignored or ridiculed by modern historians, urban planners and archaeologists. However, the creation of the maps and their installation in 1934 on a wall overlooking a newly created thoroughfare in the heart of Rome offer an opportunity to examine the interplay between maps and ritual, antiquity and imperialism, in the public art of Fascist Rome. The maps, the spectacles conducted around them, and the design of the road itself were all powerfully linked by the themes of commemoration and re-creation to stress the geopolitical objectives of the Fascist state, objectives underlined by the addition of a fifth map in 1936.


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